Spelling of Verbs in the Present Perfect Simple

How to spell regular and irregular verbs in the Present Perfect Simple

You need know all forms of the irregular verbs very well. For the Present Perfect Simple you need the form of the verb which can be found in the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs.

do → did → done

Add ed with regular verbs:
regular verbs → infinitive + ed

Sometimes there are exceptions in spelling when adding ed:

1. Adding -ed

1.1. consonant after a short, stressed vowel at the end of the word

Double the consonant.


We do not double the consonant if the vowel is not stressed:
benefit benefited (Here we stress the first e, not the i.)

In British English we double one -l at the end of the word:
travel – travelled
equal equalled

1.2. one -e at the end of the word

Only add -d.
bake  baked
sav saved
smile smiled

1.3. verbs ending in -y

Change -y to -i after a consonant. Then add ed.
hurry – hurried

Add ed with verbs ending in -y preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u):
play – played