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Pronunciation of -ed in the Past Simple

How to pronounce -ed in the Past Simple

In the Past Simple we add -ed to regular verbs. Be careful pronouncing the verbs:

1. verbs ending in -ed preceded by a voiced consonant [ ð, b, v, z, ʒ, ʤ, g, m, n, l ] or a vowel (except verbs ending in d).

The -e is silent and the sound is [d]

Examples:

  • tried  [traɪd]
  • cleaned  [kliːnd]
  • failed  [feɪld]
  • used  [juːzd]

2. verbs ending in -ed preceded by a voiceless consonant [ θ, p, f, s, ʃ, ʧ, k,]. (except verbs ending in t).

The -e is silent and the sound is [t]

Examples:

  • stopped  [stɒpt]
  • passed  [pɑːst]
  • laughed  [lɑːft]
  • worked  [wɜːkt]

3. verbs ending in -ed preceded by [t] or [d].

The -e changes to [ɪ] (otherwise the ending could not be heard) and the sound is [ɪd]

Examples: 

  • visited [vɪzɪtɪd]
  • ended  [ɛndɪd]
  • started [stɑːtɪd]
  • wanted [wɒntɪd]