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Plurals of Foreign Nouns

These nouns have irregular plural forms. They often make their plurals according to the rules of the language they were taken from (e.g. Latin or Greek) and an English plural spelling. Always use a good dictionary when using foreign plurals. Here are some examples.

1. Words of Latin origin

SingularLatin pluralEnglish plural
antennaantennaeantennas
appendixappendicesappendixes
cactuscacticactuses
curriculumcurriculacurriculums
formulaformulaeformulas
indexindicesindexes
millenniummillenniamillenniums
referendumreferendareferendums
stadiumstadiastadiums
terminusterminianalyses
thesaurusthesaurithesauruses
vortexvorticesvortexes

2. Words of Greek origin

Nouns which end in -is usually come from Greek. Their plurals are made by changing the -is to -es:

SingularPlural
analysisanalyses
axisaxes
basisbases
crisiscrises
diagnosisdiagnoses
neurosisneuroses
thesistheses