Recommendation

You should stop smoking

Requesting

 

Permission

May I use your phone?

Can I borrow your keys?

 

Offering

 

I’ll pay for the drinks

Shall I lend you a hand?

 

The modal verbs are cancouldmaymightmustshallshouldwill and would.

The modals are used to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making requests, and so on.

Permission:

We use can to ask for permission to do something:

Can I ask a question, please?
Can we go home now?

could is more formal and polite than can:

Could I ask a question please?
Could we go home now?

may is another more formal and polite way of asking for permission:

May I ask a question please?
May we go home now?

We use can to give permission:

You can go home now if you like.
You can borrow my pen if you like.

may is a more formal and polite way of giving permission:

You may go home now, if you like.

We use can to say that someone has permission to do something:

We can go out whenever we want.
Students can travel free.

may is a more formal and polite way of saying that someone has permission:

Students may travel free.

Instructions and requests:

We use could you and would you as polite ways of telling or asking someone to do something:

Could you take a message please?
Would you carry this for me please?
Could I have my bill please?

can and will are less polite:

Can you take a message please?
Will you carry this for me please?

Suggestions and advice:

We use should to make suggestions and give advice:

You should send an email.
We should go by train.

We use could to make suggestions:

We could meet at the weekend.
You could eat out tonight.

We use conditionals to give advice:

Dan will help you if you ask him.

Past tenses are more polite:

Dan would help you if you asked him.

Offers and invitations:

We use can I… and to make offers:

Can I help you?
Can I do that for you?

We can also use shall I …

Shall I help you with that?
Shall I call you on your mobile?

We sometime say I can … or I could … or I’ll (I will) … to make an offer:

I can do that for you if you like.
I can give you a lift to the station.
I’ll do that for you if you like.
I’ll give you a lift to the station.

We use would you like (to) … for invitations:

Would you like to come round tomorrow?
Would you like another drink?

We use you must or we must for a very polite invitation:

You must come round and see us.
We must meet again soon.

 


Ask Permission / Give Permission

Can + Subject + base form of the verb (informal)

  1. Can you lend me ten dollars?

Can + base form of the verb (informal)

  1. You can borrow my car.

Could + subject + base form of the verb (polite)

  1. Could I have your number?
  2. Could I talk to your supervisor please?

Make a suggestion – To make a suggestion use:

Could + base form of the verb (informal)

  1. You could take the tour of the castle tomorrow.

 

May, Might

Formal Permission / Formal Prohibition

may / may not + base form of the verb

  1. You may start your exam now.
  2. You may not wear sandals to work.

Polite Request

May + subject + base form of the verb

  1. May I help you?