How to make Plurals of Nouns
1. Regular Plural Forms
Most nouns make their plurals by simply adding –s to the end (e.g. cat/cats). Some do change their endings, though as you will see below.
1.1. How to form the plural
We form the plural by adding –s to the singular of the noun.
1.2. Nouns ending in sibilants
If the noun ends with -ch, -s, -sh, -x, or -z, add -es to form the plural or just –s if the noun ends in one -e.
1.3. Nouns ending in -y
1.3.1. y after consonant
If the noun ends with a consonant plus -y, make the plural by changing -y to -ies:
1.3.2. y after vowel
If the noun ends with a vowel plus -y, make the plural by just adding -s:
1.4. Nouns ending in -f or -fe
1.4.1. Nouns which end in two vowels plus -f usually form plurals in the normal way, with just an -s
1.4.2. With nouns that end in a consonant or a single vowel, change the -f or -fe to –ves:
Both forms are possible with the following nous:
- scarf → scarfs/scarves
- hoof → hoofs/hooves
Add -s for words ending in -ff.
- cliff → cliffs
- sheriff → sheriffs
1.5. Nouns ending in -o
Nouns ending in -o can add either -s or -es in the plural, and some can be spelled either way.
- As a general rule, most nouns ending in -o add -s to make the plural:
1.5.1. Add -s
1.5.2. Here are some examples of nouns ending in -o that are always spelled with -es in the plural:
Both forms are possible with the following nouns:
- banjo → banjos/banjoes
- ghettos → ghettos/ghettoes
- mosquito → mosquitos/mosquitoes
- tornado → tornados/tornadoes
- volcano → volcanos /volcanoes
2. Irregular Plural Forms