Long form and short form of auxiliaries
1. to be (am, are, is)
2. to be (was, were)
3. have (got)
4. had (got)
7. Modals (can, could, must, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to)
The short/contracted forms ‘s and ‘d have have two different long forms:
- he‘s = he is or he has
- he‘d = he would or he had
If have is a full verb, we do not use the short form.
- I have a shower every morning.