Long form and short form of auxiliaries

1. to be (am, are, is)

AffirmativeNegative
Long formContracted formLong formContracted form
I amI am notIm not
you areyou are notyou‘re not
you aren’t
he ishe is nothe‘s not
he isn’t
she isshe is notshe‘s not
she isn’t
it isit is notit‘s not
it isn’t
we arewe are notwere not
we aren’t
you areyou are notyoure not
you aren’t
they arethey are nottheyre not
they aren’t

2. to be (was, were)

 AffirmativeNegative
PronounLong formContracted formLong formContracted form
I, he, she, itI wasI was notI wasn’t
we, you, theywe werewe were notyou weren’t

3. have (got)

 AffirmativeNegative
PronounLong formContracted formLong formContracted form
I, we, you, theyI have gotIve gotwe have not gotweve not got
we haven’t got
he, she, itshe has gotshes gotshe has not gotshes not got
she hasn’t got

4. had (got)

 AffirmativeNegative
PronounLong formContracted formLong formContracted form
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyI had gotId gotwe had not gotwed not got
we hadn’t got

5. do

 AffirmativeNegative
PronounLong formContracted formLong formContracted form
I, we, you, theyI dowe do notwe don’t
he, she, itshe doesshe does notshe doesn’t

6. did

 AffirmativeNegative
PronounLong formContracted formLong formContracted form
I, he, she, it, we, you, theywe didwe did notwe didn’t

7. Modals (can, could, must, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to)

AffirmativeNegative
Long formContracted formLong formContracted form
cancannotcan‘t
couldcould notcouldn’t
mustmust notmustn’t
mightmight not
needneed notneedn’t
will‘llwill notwon’t
would‘dwould notwouldn’t
shallshall notshan’t
should‘dshould notshouldn’t
ought toought not tooughtn’t to

The short/contracted forms ‘s and ‘d have have two different long forms:

  • hes = he is or he has
  • hed = he would or he had

If have is a full verb, we do not use the short form.

  • have a shower every morning.