Long form and short form of auxiliaries

1. to be (am, are, is)

Affirmative Negative
Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I am I am not Im not
you are you are not you‘re not
you aren’t
he is he is not he‘s not
he isn’t
she is she is not she‘s not
she isn’t
it is it is not it‘s not
it isn’t
we are we are not were not
we aren’t
you are you are not youre not
you aren’t
they are they are not theyre not
they aren’t

2. to be (was, were)

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, he, she, it I was I was not I wasn’t
we, you, they we were we were not you weren’t

3. have (got)

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, we, you, they I have got Ive got we have not got weve not got
we haven’t got
he, she, it she has got shes got she has not got shes not got
she hasn’t got

4. had (got)

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, he, she, it, we, you, they I had got Id got we had not got wed not got
we hadn’t got

5. do

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, we, you, they I do we do not we don’t
he, she, it she does she does not she doesn’t

6. did

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, he, she, it, we, you, they we did we did not we didn’t

7. Modals (can, could, must, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to)

Affirmative Negative
Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
can cannot can‘t
could could not couldn’t
must must not mustn’t
might might not
need need not needn’t
will ‘ll will not won’t
would ‘d would not wouldn’t
shall shall not shan’t
should ‘d should not shouldn’t
ought to ought not to oughtn’t to

The short/contracted forms ‘s and ‘d have have two different long forms:

  • hes = he is or he has
  • hed = he would or he had

If have is a full verb, we do not use the short form.

  • have a shower every morning.