have in English – auxiliary and main verb

Is have an auxiliary or a main verb?

The verb have can be an auxiliary or a main verb in English.

1. have as a main verb

1.1. have as a main verb in the Simple Present (have, has, don’t have, doesn’t have)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, we, you, theyI have a new car.I don’t have a new car.Do I have a new car?
he, she, itShe has a new car.She doesn’t have a new car.Does she have a new car?

1.2. have as a main verb in the Simple Past (had, didn’t have)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyI had a new car.I did not have a new car.Did I have a new car?

2. have as an auxiliary and a main verb

2.1. have as an auxiliary and a main verb – Present Perfect (had)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, we, you, theyThey have had a holiday.They haven’t had a holiday.Have they had a holiday?
he, she, itHe has had a holiday.He hasn’t had a holiday.Has he had a holiday?

2.2. have as an auxiliary and a main verb – Past Perfect (had)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyThey had had a holiday.They hadn’t had a holiday.Had they had a holiday?

3. have as an auxiliary

3.1. have as an auxiliary in the Present Perfect (past participle)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, we, you, theyhave spoken to Susan.I haven’t spoken to Susan.Have I spoken to Susan?
he, she, itShe has spoken to Susan.She hasn’t spoken to Susan.Has she spoken to Susan?

3.2. have as an auxiliary in the Past Perfect (past participle)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyI had seen Susan.hadn’t seen Susan.Had I seen Susan?

3.3. have as an auxiliary in the Future Perfect (past participle)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyThey will have seen Susan.They won’t have seen Susan.Will they have seen Susan?