have in English – auxiliary and main verb

Is have an auxiliary or a main verb?

The verb have can be an auxiliary or a main verb in English.

1. have as a main verb

1.1. have as a main verb in the Simple Present (have, has, don’t have, doesn’t have)

Pronouns Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions
I, we, you, they I have a new car. I don’t have a new car. Do I have a new car?
he, she, it She has a new car. She doesn’t have a new car. Does she have a new car?

1.2. have as a main verb in the Simple Past (had, didn’t have)

Pronouns Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions
I, he, she, it, we, you, they I had a new car. I did not have a new car. Did I have a new car?

2. have as an auxiliary and a main verb

2.1. have as an auxiliary and a main verb – Present Perfect (had)

Pronouns Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions
I, we, you, they They have had a holiday. They haven’t had a holiday. Have they had a holiday?
he, she, it He has had a holiday. He hasn’t had a holiday. Has he had a holiday?

2.2. have as an auxiliary and a main verb – Past Perfect (had)

Pronouns Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions
I, he, she, it, we, you, they They had had a holiday. They hadn’t had a holiday. Had they had a holiday?

3. have as an auxiliary

3.1. have as an auxiliary in the Present Perfect (past participle)

Pronouns Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions
I, we, you, they have spoken to Susan. I haven’t spoken to Susan. Have I spoken to Susan?
he, she, it She has spoken to Susan. She hasn’t spoken to Susan. Has she spoken to Susan?

3.2. have as an auxiliary in the Past Perfect (past participle)

Pronouns Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions
I, he, she, it, we, you, they I had seen Susan. hadn’t seen Susan. Had I seen Susan?

3.3. have as an auxiliary in the Future Perfect (past participle)

Pronouns Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Questions
I, he, she, it, we, you, they They will have seen Susan. They won’t have seen Susan. Will they have seen Susan?