Have in English – auxiliary and main verb

Is have an auxiliary or a main verb?

The verb have can be an auxiliary verb or a main verb in English.

1. have as a main verb

1.1. have as a main verb in the Simple Present (have, has, don’t have, doesn’t have)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, we, you, theyhave new shoes.I don’t have new shoes.Do I have new shoes?
he, she, itShe has new shoes.She doesn’t have new shoes.Does she have new shoes?

1.2. have as a main verb in the Simple Past (had, didn’t have)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyI had new shoes.I did not have new shoes.Did I have new shoes?

2. have as an auxiliary and a main verb

2.1. have as an auxiliary and a main verb – Present Perfect (had)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, we, you, theyThey have had a great holiday.They haven’t had a great holiday.Have they had a great holiday?
he, she, itHe has had a great holiday.He hasn’t had a great holiday.Has he had a great holiday?

2.2. have as an auxiliary and a main verb – Past Perfect (had)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyThey had had a great holiday.They hadn’t had a great holiday.Had they had a great holiday?

3. have as an auxiliary

3.1. have as an auxiliary in the Present Perfect (past participle)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, we, you, theyhave met Susan.haven’t met Susan.Have I met Susan?
he, she, itShe has met Susan.She hasn’t met Susan.Has she met Susan?

3.2. have as an auxiliary in the Past Perfect (past participle)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyhad met Susan.hadn’t met Susan.Had I met Susan?

3.3. have as an auxiliary in the Future Perfect (past participle)

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyThey will have met Susan.They won’t have met Susan.Will they have met Susan?