Be, Do and Have in the Past Perfect Simple

How to use special verbs in Past Perfect Simple

1. be as a main verb

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyThey had been to Spain.They had not been to Spain.Had they been to Spain?

2. do as a main verb

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyShe had done the work.She had not done work.Had she done the work?

3. have as a main verb

PronounsAffirmative sentencesNegative sentencesQuestions
I, he, she, it, we, you, theyHe had had a sleep.He had not had a sleep.Had he had a sleep?

► We sometimes use short/contracted forms for had with affirmative or negative sentences.